Saturday, April 27, 2013

(Pentest Apache #3) - The Nature of # (%23) Character | Mod Security Rules in Apache

In my earlier posts, I have talked about  some interesting issues in deployed modules in Apache and insecure configuration. Refer here:

1. (Pentest Apache #1) Exposed Apache Axis - SOAP Objects
2. (Pentest Apache #2) - The Beauty of "%3F" and Apache's Inability | Wordpress | Mod Security

In this post, I want to discuss an interesting issue that occurs due to misconfigured rules in modsecurity. It is not a severe issue but it helps the penetration tester to gain some additional information about the server-side environment. For example:- directory listing.

In modsecurity, NE is stated as No Escape. One can explicitly configure the rules with this flag to implement no escaping. For example: "#" will be converted to "%23" if NE flag is not set.  If NE flag is set , the "#" character is treated as such and processed accordingly.  For more about modsecurity flags, refer here:  An example taken from there:

"RewriteRule ^/anchor/(.+) /bigpage.html#$1 [NE,R]. This example will redirect /anchor/xyz to /bigpage.html#xyz."

If escaping is not set properly in addition to some misconfiguration issue, it could result in unexpected behavior. I have noticed this flaw plethora of times during a number of security assessments. Let's have a look at one of the real time example:-

URL pattern 1:
URL pattern 2:

In case (1), if NE flag is set, the URL has to be processed with "#" character. In case (2), if NE flag is not set, the URL has to be processed with "%23", hexadecimal notation of the character "#". But due to misconfiguration, the behavior changes.

The tested server is : Apache/2.2.14. Actually, both URLs are responded with 200 OK responses. In case (1), the output results in directory listing. In case (2), the output results in content of the file

Case 1: Content-Type is text/html;charset=UTF-8

With # Character 
Case 2: Content-Type is text/plain

With %23 Character

It could be a one reason that file name starts with "#" character. But, the primary reason is the inability of Apache to understand misconfigured URL rewriting rules. Usually, if the URL rewriting rule fails, the web server should respond in 404 error message. In case of misconfiguration, the fall back step is the directory listing, atleast that what I have seen in practical scenarios (it could be different).

Inference: Play around with URL rewriting rules to detect bypasses which could result in gleaning additional information.

Tuesday, April 09, 2013

A Sweet Script to Dump Keys from Wlan Profiles - Post Exploitation (or Regular Use)

Update: Just found that PaulDotCom has written over this blog post in episode 327:

"This is a great example of so many things. First, its a really neat little script (though I imagine the powershell junkies will be excited to convert it). It highlights the importance of post-exploitation. But that is really just a term for us gear heads. What this means for the organization is terrible. It means you can exploit systems that really don't seem to matter, maybe Jane's computer was compromised and didn't have any sensitive data on it and her account does not. However, Jane connects to the same "secure" wireless network as more important people, say Bob from finance. Now, a small little hole, like a missing Adobe patch, just caughed up the keys to your kingdom. It means that vulnerabilities and risk have this weird relationship and its one of the toughest things to understand, until you have a pen test."

After exploitation, retrieving data from the compromised machine is always an interesting scenario. Considering the time factor, even a small automation is productive. Running a same command several times is  not bad but its better to take a next step.

The below presented script helps to dump security keys for all the wlan profiles present on the compromised system (if you have an administrator access). I use this sweet script to do the work so use it when ever you want.

Wlan Profiles - Security Keys Dumping Script

It outputs as:

Fetch the batch script from here:

Enjoy !